In this study, participants will read simple sentences that will sometimes be entirely in Spanish, and will sometimes switch between English and Spanish. Simple comprehension questions will follow each sentence.
Participants will also complete a series of language proficiency tasks and measures of cognitive ability (vocabulary, attention). All information gathered in this task will be kept confidential. Participants will be paid for their time in the lab.
Given the nature of the task (code-switching, i.e. switching between languages within a single sentence), we request that interested participants contact the researcher at firstname.lastname@example.org in order to discuss their potential inclusion in the study. Ideally, we are seeking individuals who learned both Spanish and English from a very young age (or at the same time, if born to Spanish-speaking parents in the US or another English-speaking region). Likewise, we will accept individuals who were born in a Spanish-speaking country, but moved to the US at an early age (i.e., before five years old) and continued to use Spanish while learning English.
Importantly, we ask that all of our participants be code-switchers, though if you are uncertain please email and ask, as we can figure out if you are! This means that, when speaking to other bilinguals who know Spanish and English, you mix your two languages together in the same sentence, or sometimes use words from the other language while speaking.
Again, if you are unsure of whether or not you fit these criteria, please email and ask!
Participant Inclusion Criteria
- Must have learned Spanish during early childhood in a naturalistic setting (i.e., from your parents or community).
- Must have also learned English during early childhood (from your family, community, or in school).
- Must be highly proficient in both languages.
CANNOT have learned Spanish as a second language (i.e., during high school or college).